Record volumes of crude oil were imported into China during the first half of 2023 because of refinery expansions in the country and initiatives to reopen the economy after the government eased COVID-19 mobility restrictions. China imported an average of 11.4 million barrels of crude oil per day (b/d) in the first half of 2023, a 12% increase from 2022’s annual average of 10.2 million b/d.